The most common cause of burning urination is the urinary tract infection. It causes painful and difficulty in urination. Here we will discuss more about its causes, symptoms and treatment.
Urinary tract infection(UTI) is a general term referring to presence of microorganisms or bugs in urine.
What is Urinary Tract Infections?
It is multiplication of organisms in the urinary tract and is associated with presence of neutrophils & growth of more than 105 organisms/ml from properly collected clean catch morning mid-stream urine as most instances indicate an infection.
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It may either of two types:
Lower urinary tract infection
Superficial or mucosal infection of bladder & urethra: Cystitis, Urethritis
Upper urinary tract infection
When tissue invasion takes place in upper part of urinary tract: Pyelonephritis, Prostatitis, Intrarenal & perinephric abscess.
What are the causes of UTI?
Bacterial causes of UTI are:
- Commonly caused by Gram negative bacteria; 75% of UTI caused by E.coli. Others are Klebsiella, Proteus, Enterobacter and Pseudomonas.
- Gram positive bacteria causing UTI are, Staphylococcus saprophyticus (Commonly in female), S. epidermidis, Streptococcus faecalis.
Urinary tract infections is more common in females than males. UTI is more common in female than males because of:
- Length of female urethra (4cm) is shorter than male urethra (16-20cm).
- Close proximity of female urethra to anus.
- Absence of prostatic secretion.
- Female urethral trauma during coitus.
What are the symptoms of UTI?
The symptoms of UTI includes:
- Abrupt onset of increased frequency of urine and urgency
- Burning pain sensation during passing urine (Dysuria)
- Suprapubic pain during and after passing urine
- Intense desire to pass more urine due to spasm of inflamed bladder wall
- Non-visible or visible blood in urine
Signs that can be elicited in UTI includes:
- Suprapubic tenderness often present but often unremarkable on examination
- Urine becomes grossly cloudy and malodorous; In 30% cases it is bloody
How do you know if you have UTI?
Routinely, routine & microscopic examination of urine is done, including culture of midstream urine.
What is the treatment of UTI?
Appropriate antibiotics therapy is needed if your urine is positive for bugs in culture. It should be taken in appropriate dose and for complete duration of time.
Other precautions need to be taken for UTI are:
- Take plenty of fluids more than 2 liters per day.
- Empty the bladder regularly (3 hours interval and before sleep).
- Empty the bladder before & after intercourse.
- Avoid constipation.
- Maintain good personal hygiene.
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When to see a doctor?
If you find yourself having the symptoms & signs of UTI consult the doctor for appropriate antibiotics therapy. And hospitalization may be required if systemic features from pyelonephritis appear or other complication appears, when intravenous antibiotics are necessary or features of sepsis develop.