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Diarrhoea is the condition of altered consistency and frequency of stool generally more than three times a day. In simple words its loose and watery bowel movements.

Causes:
-    Bacteria
-    Viruses
-    Food poisioning
-    Giardiasis
-    Malabsorption
-    Inflammatory bowel disease
-    Colonic polyps and bowel cancers
-    Medications
-    Hyperthyroidism

Symptoms:
-    Loose stool more than three times a day
-    Pain abdomen
-    Vomiting
-    Lethargy
-    Tiredness
-    Signs of dehydration: Sunken eyes, thirst, decreased urination
-    History of intake of medications, food poisoning, raw foods

Warning signs:
Patients with diarrhea if have any of the following signs need to contact to the hospitals nearby immediately.
-    Blood in stool
-    Fever
-    Diarrhea more than 2 days
-    Severe pain abdomen or around rectum
-    Nausea or vomiting that doesn’t allows to take oral fluids

Diagnosis:
Generally diarrhea is clinical diagnosis. Stool examination and blood examination can be done.

Treatment:
-    Fluid replacement by Oral Rehydration Salts suffice in major cases if patient is not in severe dehydration and able to take orally.
-    Hospitalization and intravenous fluids is necessary if patient is severely dehydrated and not able to take oral fluids and if patient has above mentioned warning signs.
-    Zinc supplementation to prevent the further course of diarrhea.
-    Treatment of the particular cause may be necessary.

Prevention:
-    Proper personal hygiene and environmental sanitation
-    Hand washing by proper methods with soap and clean after defication
-    Only drink boiled water or after other methods of purification
-    Breastfeeding and proper nutrition for children
 

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