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INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS

Infectious mononucleosis (mono) is often called the kissing disease. The virus that causes mono is transmitted through saliva, so transmitted through kissing, but people can also be exposed through a cough or sneeze, or by sharing a glass or food utensils with someone who has mono. However, mononucleosis isn't as contagious as some infections, such as the common cold.  

Symptoms

Fatigue

  • General feeling of unwellness (malaise)
  • Sore throat, perhaps a strep throat that doesn't get better with antibiotic use
  • Fever
  • Swollen lymph nodes in your neck and armpits
  • Swollen tonsils
  • Headache
  • Skin rash
  • Soft, swollen spleen 

Causes

Mononucleosis is caused by the EBV. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), EBV is a member of the herpes virus family and is one of the most common viruses to infect humans around the world.

The virus is spread through direct contact with saliva from the mouth of an infected person and cannot be spread through blood contact. You can be exposed to the virus by a cough or sneeze, by kissing, or by sharing food or drinks with someone who has mono. It usually takes four to eight weeks for symptoms to develop after you’re infected.

Diagnosis

Mono based on the presence of symptoms such as a fever, a sore throat, and swollen lymph glands. Your age is also a good indicator. Mono usually occurs in teenagers, but it can occur in people at any age.

Preventions

Mono is almost impossible to prevent. This is because healthy people who have been infected with EBV in the past can carry and spread the infection periodically for the rest of their lives. Almost all adults have been infected with EBV by age 35 and have built up antibodies to fight the infection. People normally get mono only once in their lives.

Risk Factors

  • young people between the ages of 15 and 30
  • students
  • medical interns
  • nurses
  • caregivers
  • people who take medications that suppress the immune system

Complications

Splenomegaly
Hepatomegaly and jaundice
Anaemia
thrombocytopenia(decreased platelets count)
Heart problems(Myocarditis)
Swollen tonsils 

Treatment

Infectious mononucleosis is generally self-limiting, so only symptomatic and/or supportive treatments are used. Due to splenomegaly  contact sports should be avoided. Paracetamol and NSAIDS are used as an anti-inflammatory to reduce symptoms of pharyngeal pain, odynophagia, or enlarged tonsils. ampicillin and amoxicillin are contraindicated during acute Epstein–Barr virus infection.