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Hypothyroidism is a common endocrine disorder resulting from deficiency of thyroid hormone.This tiny gland is found in neck.If the gland is underactive, it may not make enough thyroid hormone.


  • Dull facial expressions
  • Tiredness (fatigue)
  • Being cold bothers you
  • Hoarse voice
  • Slow speech
  • Droopy eyelids
  • Puffy and swollen face
  • Weight gain
  • Constipation
  • Sparse, coarse, and dry hair
  • Coarse, dry, and thickened skin
  • Hand tingling or pain (carpal tunnel syndrome)
  • Slow pulse
  • Muscle cramps
  • Sides of eyebrows thin or fall out
  • Confusion
  • Increased or irregular menstrual flow in women


Most common cause is auto immune where antibodies are formed against the thyroid gland. Secondary hypothyroidism can also sometimes occur when your pituitary gland stops working. The pituitary gland then no longer tells the thyroid gland to make thyroid hormones.


Blood tests. They can measure the amount of thyroid hormone and thyroid stimulating hormone in the blood. TSH is usually high  and T3,T4 are usually low.

Risk Factors

  • Gender. Women are more likely than men to develop it.
  • Age. Most people with the condition are older than 60.
  • Thyroid problems or thyroid surgery in the past
  • Family history of thyroid problems
  • Certain conditions, such as type 1 diabetes and rheumatoid arthritis
  • Turner syndrome, a genetic condition that affects females
  • Pregnancy. Women who are pregnant or who have delivered a baby within the previous 6 months are more likely to get it.


  • Anemia
  • Low body temperature
  • Heart failure


The treatment goals for hypothyroidism are to reverse clinical progression and correct metabolic derangements, as evidenced by normal blood levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and free thyroxine (T4). Thyroid hormone is administered to supplement or replace endogenous production.