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FEVER

It is defined as having a temperature above the normal range due to an increase in the body's temperature set-point.

Types of fever

  • Continuous fever
  • Intermittent fever
  • Remittent fever
  • Pel-Ebstein fever

Symptoms

  • Temperature greater than 100.4 F (38 C) in adults and children
  • Shivering, shaking, and chills
  • Aching muscles and joints or other body aches
  • Headache
  • Intermittent sweats or excessive sweating
  • Rapid heart rate and/or palpitations
  • Skin flushing or hot skin
  • Feeling faint, dizzy, or lightheaded
  • Eye pain or sore eyes, weakness

Causes

  • Infectious (virus, Bacterial eg URTI, UTI, AGE etc)
  • Heat exhaustion
  • Extreme sunburn
  • Immunological as rheumatoid arthritis, SLE
  • A malignant tumor
  • Some medications, such as antibiotics and drugs used to treat high blood pressure or seizures
  • Some immunizations, such as the diphtheria, tetanus and pneumococcal vaccine
  • Various skin inflammations, e.g., boils, or abscess
  • Fever of unknown origin
  • Tissue destruction as in hemolysissurgeryinfarctioncrush syndromerhabdomyolysiscerebral bleeding, etc.
  • Blood transfusion

Diagnosis

Along with having generalized symptoms of a fever, taking one's temperature with a thermometer can confirm the diagnosis of a fever. A temperature greater than 100.4 F in adults or children is considered a fever.

Different tests may be done by a doctor, such a blood and imaging tests, to determine the cause of a fever and if the cause of the fever needs to be treated.

Complications

  • Severe dehydration
  • Hallucinations
  • Fever-induced seizure (febrile seizure), in a small number of children ages 6 months to 5 years

 

Treatment

Fever is not a disease but a manifestation of underlying problem, hence we should always find the cause of fever. Conservative management includes cold sponging while medical management includes antipyretics as ibuprofen, Paracetamol.