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COMMON COLD

The common cold is a viral infection of your upper respiratory tract — your nose and throat. It can result from any one of more than 200 different viruses. But, the rhinoviruses and the coronaviruses cause most colds.

The common cold is very easily spread to others. It's often spread through airborne droplets that are coughed or sneezed into the air by the sick personColds can also be spread when a sick person touches you or a surface (like a doorknob) that you then touch.

Symptoms

  • Runny nose
  • Sore throat
  • Sneezing
  • Cough
  • Watering eyes
  • Low-grade fever
  • Achy muscles and bones
  • Headache
  • Mild fatigue
  • Chills
  • Watery discharge from nose that thickens and turns yellow or green

 

Diagnosis

Based on clinical signs and symptoms

Preventions

  • Washing hands often
  • Avoiding close contact with people suffering from cold

Risk Factors

  • Age: infants and preschool children are more susceptible
  • Time of year: susceptible in fall and winter season
  • Immunity: low immunity

Complications

Secondary bacterial infection of middle ear, sinuses etc.

Treatment

Most people recover from a common cold in about a week or two. Currently, there is no medication available to cure or shorten the duration of the common cold. However, the following are some treatments that may help to relieve some symptoms of the cold:

  • Decongestants or antihistaminic
  • Cough medicine and syrup
  • Rest
  • Increased fluid intake
  • Pain relievers for headache or fever
  • Warm, salt water gargling for sore throat
  • Petroleum jelly for raw, chapped skin around the nose and lips
  • Warm steam for congestion

Because colds are caused by viruses, antibiotics don't work.