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CHOLERA

Intestinal infection caused by the bacteria Vibrio Cholerae. It is the water borne disease transmitted through fecal-oral route.

Symptoms

  • Profuse, watery diarrhea – rice water appearance
  • Vomiting
  • Abdominal cramps
  • Malaise
  • Signs of dehydration: Sunken eyes, excessive thirst, dizziness, increased heart rate and respiration, decreased urinary output
  • In late stage: circulatory collapse, shock and ultimately death

Causes

Vibrio cholerae, the bacterium that causes cholera, is usually found in food or water contaminated by feces from a person with the infection. Common sources include:

  • Municipal water supplies
  • Ice made from municipal water
  • Foods and drinks sold by street vendors
  • Vegetables grown with water containing human wastes
  • Raw or undercooked fish and seafood caught in waters polluted with sewage

Diagnosis

  • Microscopic examination of stool
  • Gram stain
  • Stool culture
  • Serotyping and biotyping

Preventions

Proper personal hygiene and environmental sanitation

Drinking water should be boiled or purified by other means before drinking

Hand washing with proper steps after defecation and before meals

Uncooked vegetables, salads and fruits should be properly washed before eating