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AVIAN INFLUENZA

Avian influenza refers to the disease caused by infection with avian (bird) influenza (flu) Type A viruses. These viruses occur naturally among wild aquatic birds worldwide and can infect domestic poultry and other bird and animal species. Avian flu viruses do not normally infect humans. However, sporadic human infections with avian flu viruses have occurred. Infected birds shed avian influenza virus in their saliva, mucous and feces. Human infections with bird flu viruses can happen when enough virus gets into a person’s eyes, nose or mouth, or is inhaled.

The spread of avian influenza A viruses from one ill person to another has been reported very rarely. However, because of the possibility that avian influenza A viruses could change and gain the ability to spread easily between people, monitoring for human infection and person-to-person transmission is extremely important for public health.

Symptoms

 Mostly mild like common cold but sometimes fatal with pneumonia and thus respiratory failure.

  • Fever
  • Body ache
  • Cough
  • Sore throat
  • Pneumonia
  • Conjunctivitis

Causes

Influenza A H5N1 and H7N9 strain

Diagnosis

By swab from the nose or throat of the sick person during the first few days of illness and doing molecular tests.

Risk Factors

  • Poultry workers
  • Veterinarians
  • Health workers
  • Elderly and debilitated

Complications

Respiratory failure and multi organ failure in immunocompromised and debilitated patients.

 

Treatment

  • Antivirals: oseltamivir and zanamivir
  • Ventilator support for respiratory failure