It is a tear in the skin lining the anus. It usually occurs in posterior part of anus.
- Pain: severe in acute and mild in chronic type
- Bleeding: bright red blood on stool or toilet paper
- A lump of skin around anus
- Passing of hard stool and straining as in constipation
- Chronic diarrhea
- Crohn's disease
- Per rectal exam and proctoscopy can't be done in acute cases due to pain.
It can be prevented by taking measures to prevent constipation. High-fiber foods, adequate fluids and regular exercise to avoid strain during bowel movements.
- Delayed healing
- Anal fistula, abscess
Anal fissures often heal within a few weeks if you take steps to keep your stool soft.
- Stool softeners: lactulose
- Sitz bath: Sit in warm water bath where small quantity of paotassium permanganate or table salt is added.
- Nitroglycerine cream
- Surgery: for chronic and nonresponsive cases whereby anus is dilated