It is a long term skin problem that occurs when hair follicles become clogged with dead skin cell and oil (sebum) from skin. It usually occurs around puberty.
- Site: mostly face, neck, chest, shoulder and back
- Mild: Whiteheads and blackheads which when infected can turn into pimple
- Severe: many pimples over large area or few but large pimples
- Pain, scarring and pigmentation
A result of variety of factors:
- Infection: with Propionebacterium acnes
- Hormonal: Thus seen around puberty and premenstruation
- Diet: High sugar containing diet are suspected
- Cosmetics: oil based products, facial massage
- Others: Stress, drugs
- Skin hygiene: Regular gentle cleansing with soap and water and avoiding oil-based cosmetics
- Diet: not necessary to restrict diet
- Avoidance of stress
Severe forms of acne lead to scarring and pigmentation of face which can lead to low self-esteem and even depression in some.
- Mild: Retinoic acid gel/cream
- Benzoyl peroxide/azelaic acid/antibiotic creams can be added
- Moderate: Oral antibiotics and retinoic acid cream/gel
- Severe: oral retinoic acid
*Oral retinoic acids are highly teratogenic so should be avoided in pregnancy and are also toxic to liver. So they should be used only after consulting a doctor.
- Other : Cryotherapy, Laser therapy, phototherapy