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Tuberculosis is an infectious disease of lungs caused by the bacteria Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

Cause:
Acid fast bacilli Mycobacterium tuberculosis is the causative agent of tuberculosis

Symptoms:
Latent TB is symptomless. Active TB has following symptoms:
-    Coughing sometimes with mucus or blood
-    Fever with chills
-    Night sweats
-    Fatigue
-    Loss of weight
-    Loss of appetite
It can later lead to:
-    Spinal and bone infection
-    Brain infection causing meningitis
-    Infection of liver and kidney
-    Infection of GI tract

Risk factors:
-    Smoking
-    People with HIV/AIDS
-    Elderly age group
-    Malnutrition
-    Chronic lung diseases

Mode of transmission:
Droplets aerosol while coughing and sneezing

Diagnosis:
-    Sputum microscopy and culture
-    Chest X ray
-    Blood examination

Treatment:
Anti tuberculosis regimen as prescribed by National Tuberculosis Programme Regimen. Various DOTS centre are there in most of the places for the free distribution of drugs through the government health channels.

Prevention:
-    Wearing face masks
-    Covering mouth
-    Ventilating rooms
-    Isolation of the diseased

 

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